Разлика между версии на „Антропоморфия“

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'''Антропоморфия''' или '''антропоморфизъм''' (от [[Старогръцки език|старогръцки]] ''ανθρωπος'', антропос — „човек“; и ''μορφη'', морфе — „форма“) е приписване на човешки характеристики и функции (или характеристики, които се предполага, че са присъщи само на хората) върху животни, неодушевени предмети и обекти, природни феномени и стихии, концепции или митологични същества. Терминът е изкован в средата на [[18 век]] <ref>Дъглас Харпър, "Онлайн етимологичен речник" - {{en икона}} [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=anthropomorphism&searchmode=none anthropomorphism]</ref>.
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'''Антропоморфия''' или '''антропоморфизъм''' (от [[Старогръцки език|старогръцки]] ''ανθρωπος'' — „човек“; и ''μορφη'' — „форма“) — приписване на човешки характеристики и функции на животни, неодушевени предмети, природни стихии или митологични същества.
 
Характерно за голяма част от [[религия|религиите]] по света е да изобразяват [[божество|божествата]], които почитат, в антропоморфен вид — т.е. с външност, мисли, чувства, желания и отношения, подобни на [[човек|човешките]]. Такива примери можем да намерим в [[Древногръцка митология|Гръцката]], [[Римска митология|Римската]] и др. митологии. В тотемистичните религии божествата най-често са [[зооморфия|зооморфни]].
 
== Източници ==
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==In religion and myths==
Various [[mythology|mythologies]] are almost entirely concerned with anthropomorphic gods in human forms and possessing human characteristics such as [[jealousy]], [[hatred]], or [[love]]. The [[Family_Tree_of_the_Greek_Gods|Greek Gods]] such as [[Zeus]] and [[Apollo (god)|Apollo]] often were depicted in anthropomorphic forms. The ten avatars of the [[Hindu]] god [[Vishnu]] possess human forms and qualities.
 
Current religious belief generally holds that it is improper to describe the [[God]] of [[Judaism]], and [[Islam]] as human. However, it is extremely difficult for the average person to picture or discuss God or the gods without an anthropomorphic framework. Traditional Christianity says that [[Jesus Christ]] became human while remaining fully God, uniting the [[divinity|divine]] and human natures in his person, and retaining his [[resurrection|resurrected]] body when he ascended to Heaven. According to the [[Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]] (LDS/Mormon), God the Father has a glorified, perfected physical body in which His spirit dwells. However, in contrast to the human frailties (hate, lying, etc.) attributed to, for example, Greek Gods, [[monotheism|monotheist]] Gods are generally considered [[omnibenevolent]].
 
Anthropomorphism is also important in many traditions of [[magic (paranormal)|magic]], where it is thought that entities can be affected by appealing to, bartering with or threatening their [[soul|spirit]]s.
 
Anthropomorphism in the form of '''personification''' consists of creating imaginary persons who are the embodiment of an abstraction such as [[Death (personification)|Death]], Lust, or War (see [[Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse]] for notable examples).
 
==In literature==
[[Terry Pratchett]] is notable for having several anthropomorphic personifications in his [[Discworld]] books, perhaps most well known is the character [[Death (Discworld)|Death]]. [[Piers Anthony]] also wrote a series regarding the seven [[Incarnations of Immortality|incarnations]] of Death, Nature, Time, War, Fate, Good and Evil. [[Neil Gaiman]] is also notable for anthropomorphising seven aspects of the world in his series [[The Sandman (DC Comics Modern Age)|The Sandman]] - they are called [[the Endless]]: [[Destiny (Sandman)|Destiny]], [[Death (Sandman)|Death]], [[Dream (Sandman)|Dream]], [[Destruction (Sandman)|Destruction]], [[Desire (Sandman)|Desire]], [[Despair (Sandman)|Despair]], and [[Delirium (Sandman)|Delirium]].
 
The Indian books ''[[Panchatantra]]'' (The Five priniciples) and ''[[The Jataka tales]]'' employ this trick of anthromorphized animals very effectively to illustrate various principles of life.
 
==Common usage==
It is a common tendency for people to think of inanimate objects as having human-like characteristics as well, though few if any actually believe this to have real significance. Common examples include naming one's car or begging a machine to work. Advances in [[artificial intelligence]] are beginning to make such foibles into a potentially more significant phenomenon, however, as [[computer]]s begin to reach the point where they can recognize spoken language. Some computers are already very good at displaying very specific and specialized categories of human-like behaviour, such as learning from their mistakes or to anticipate certain input, playing [[chess]] and other games with humanlike capability, and even in the case of [[robot]]s potentially taking on humanlike form.
 
===Modern occurrences===
[[Image:TV_dinosaurs_charlene_and_robbie_angry.jpg|right|frame|250px|Characters from the sitcom [[Dinosaurs (television series)|Dinosaurs]]]]
The use of anthropomorphized animals has a long tradition in art and literature. Frequently they are used to portray stereotypical characters, in order to quickly convey what characteristics the author or artist intends for them to possess. Examples include [[Aesop]]'s fables, [[George Orwell]]'s [[Animal Farm]] and political cartoons, e.g. [[Maus (graphic novel)|Maus]]. Many of the most famous children's television characters are anthropomorphized [[funny animal]]s: [[Mickey Mouse]], [[Kermit the Frog]], [[Bugs Bunny]], [[Daffy Duck]] and [[Calimero]], for example. While 'funny' is common, it is not a hard rule; Bert the Turtle, star of ''[[Duck and Cover]]'' is a children-oriented exception. While cartoons have often featured these characters, a newer sitcom-style show with this theme is [[Father of the Pride]].
 
In recent years interest in anthropomorphic animals has also spawned a genre of examples, commonly referred to as "[[Furry|furries]]" or "morphs" for short.
 
==In logical reasoning==
 
Using anthropomorpisized caricatures or projecting human qualities on conceptual entities or inanimate objects in [[reasoning]] is known as committing a [[pathetic fallacy]].
 
==See also==
*[[Anthropopathy]]
*[[Uncanny Valley]]
 
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