Разлика между версии на „Броколи“

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Броколите са растение от семейство зелеви, чиято цветна глава се използва като зеленчук. Думата броколи произлиза от италиански (broccolo) и означава в множествено число "цъфтящи върхове на зелето". Броколите обикновено се варят във вода или на пара, но могат да се консумират сурови и стават популярни като суров зеленчук сервиран в ордьоври. Броколите се класифицират в групата на сорт Италика от вида Brassica oleracea. Броколите имат големи цветни глави, обикновено зелени на цвят, подредени като разклонени клони върху дебело стъбло, годно за консумация. Цветните глави са заобиколени от листа. Броколите приличат най-много на карфиол, но са различна група от същия вид. Те произхождат от култивирани зелеви листни култури в северното Средиземноморие около 6-ти век пр.н.е. От времето на Римската империя, броколите се смятат за уникално ценна храна сред италианците. Те са пренесени в Англия от Антверпен в средата на 18-ти век от Peter Scheemakers.В Съединените щати за пръв път са внесени от италиански имигранти, но не стават широко известни до 1920 г.
{{Other uses}}
{{Infobox Cultivar
| name = Broccoli
| image = Broccoli and cross section edit.jpg
| image_width = 250px
| image_caption = Broccoli
| species = ''[[Brassica oleracea]]''
| group = Italica Group
| origin = From Italy (2,000 years ago)<ref name="OTB">{{cite journal|url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/ert85x3082740212/fulltext.pdf|title=Origin and taxonomy of broccoli|last=Buck|first=P. A||journal = Economic Botany|volume = 10|issue = 3|pages = 250-253|year = 1956|accessdate=2012-04-24}}</ref><ref name="JSUOF">{{cite web|url=http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv031|title=Broccoli—Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)|last=Stephens|first=James|publisher=University of Florida|page=1|accessdate=2009-05-14}}</ref>
}}
 
'''Broccoli''' is a plant in the [[Brassicaceae|cabbage family]], whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of ''{{lang|it|[[wikt:broccolo#Italian|broccolo]]}}'', refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage".<ref>{{cite dictionary|title=broccoli|encyclopedia=Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary|edition=11th|page=156|isbn=978-0-87779-809-5|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/broccoli|accessdate=24 August 2009}}</ref> Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed, but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in [[hors d'œuvre]] trays.
 
Broccoli is classified in the Italica [[cultivar group]] of the species ''[[Brassica oleracea]]''. Broccoli has large [[flower head]]s, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like fashion on [[branches]] [[sprouting]] from a thick, edible [[plant stem|stalk]]. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles [[cauliflower]], which is a different cultivar group of the same species.
 
Broccoli was derived from cultivated leafy cole crops in the Northern Mediterranean in about the 6th century BCE <ref name="VB">{{cite journal|last = Maggioni|first = Lorenzo|coauthors = von Bothmer., R., Poulesen, G., Branca, F.|title = Origin and Domestication of Cole Crops (''Brassica oleracea'' L.): Linguistic and Literary Considerations|journal = Economic Botany|volume = 64|issue = 2|pages = 109-123|year = 2010}}</ref>. Since the [[Roman Empire]], broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among [[Italians]].<ref name="NI">{{cite book|last=Nonnecke|first=Ib|title=Vegetable Production|publisher=Springer-Verlag New York, LLC|date=November 1989|page=394|isbn=978-0-442-26721-6|url=http://books.google.com/?id=H7i8QJw8BJsC&pg=PA394}}</ref> Broccoli was brought to England from [[Antwerp]] in the mid-1700s by [[Peter Scheemakers]]. <ref>Smith,J.T. ''Nollekins and His Times'', 1829 vol. 2:101: "Scheemakers, on his way to England, visited his birth-place, bringing with him several roots [''sic''] of brocoli, a dish till then little known in perfection at our tables."</ref> Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known until the 1920s.<ref name="MM"> {{cite book|title=The world on a plate|last = Denker|first = Joel|page=8|publisher = U of Nebraska Press|isbn=978-0-8032-6014-6|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=S_x6nrkcoUkC&oi|date = 2003|accessdate=24 April 2012}}</ref>
 
==Nutritional and medicinal==
{{nutritionalvalue|name=Broccoli, raw (edible parts)|kJ=141| water=89.30 g| protein=2.82 g|fat=0.37 g|carbs=6.64 g|fiber=2.6 g|sugars=1.7 g|iron_mg=0.73|calcium_mg=47|magnesium_mg=21|phosphorus_mg=66|potassium_mg=316|zinc_mg=0.41|vitA_ug = 31| lutein_ug = 1121|betacarotene_ug=361|vitC_mg=89.2|pantothenic_mg=0.573|vitB6_mg=0.175|folate_ug=63|thiamin_mg=0.071|riboflavin_mg=0.117|niacin_mg=0.639| vitK_ug=101.6| right=1|source_usda=1|vitE_mg = 0.78}}
 
Broccoli is high in [[vitamin]] [[Vitamin C|C]], as well as [[dietary fiber]]; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-[[cancer]] properties, such as [[diindolylmethane]] and small amounts of [[selenium]].<ref name="WHFoods">{{cite web|url=http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=9|title=WHFoods: Broccoli|publisher=George Mateljan Foundation|accessdate=2009-05-11}}</ref> A single serving provides more than 30&nbsp;mg of [[Vitamin C]] and a half-cup provides 52&nbsp;mg of Vitamin C.<ref>Understanding Nutrition, Eleanor N. Whitney and Eva M. N. Hamilton, Table H, supplement, page 373 Table 1, ISBN 0-8299-0419-0</ref> The [[3,3'-Diindolylmethane]] found in broccoli is a potent modulator of the [[Innate immune system|innate immune response system]] with anti-[[virus|viral]], anti-[[bacteria]]l and anti-cancer activity.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.diindolylmethane.org|title = Diindolylmethane Information Resource Center at the University of California, Berkeley|accessdate = 2007-06-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.activamune.com/diindolylmethane_dim_immune_activation_data_center.htm|title = Diindolylmethane Immune Activation Data Center|accessdate = 2007-06-10}}</ref> Broccoli also contains the compound [[glucoraphanin]], which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound [[sulforaphane]], though the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled.<ref name = 'boil'/> Broccoli is also an excellent source of [[indole-3-carbinol]], a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.<ref>{{cite news|url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4688854.stm|title = Broccoli chemical's cancer check|work = BBC News|accessdate = 5 September 2010|date = 7 February 2006}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100629131316.htm|title = How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells|work = Science Daily|accessdate = 5 September 2010|date = 30 June 2010}}</ref>
 
Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of suspected anti-carcinogenic compounds, such as [[sulforaphane]], with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes.<ref name='boil'/> However, other preparation methods such as [[steaming]],<ref name=maximize>{{cite news|title= Maximizing The Anti-Cancer Power Of Broccoli |date=2005-04-05|work = Science Daily|url =http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050326114810.htm}}</ref> [[Microwave oven|microwaving]], and [[stir frying]] had no significant effect on the compounds.<ref name='boil'>{{cite news|last=Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick|title= Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties. |date=2007-05-15|url =http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/research_says_boiling/}}</ref>
 
Broccoli has the highest levels of [[carotenoids]] in the [[brassica]] family.<ref name=carotenoids>{{cite web|url = http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091104132824.htm|title = Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli|work = Science Daily|accessdate = 5 September 2010|date = 8 November 2009}}</ref> It is particularly rich in [[lutein]] and also provides a modest amount of [[beta-carotene]].<ref name=carotenoids/>
 
A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive [[prostate cancer]].<ref>{{cite journal|last = Kirsh|first = VA|coauthors = Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB|pmid = 17652276 |title = Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer|journal = Journal of the National Cancer Institute|volume = 99|issue = 15|pages = 1200–9|year = 2007 |doi = 10.1093/jnci/djm065|last8 = Prostate}}</ref> Broccoli consumption has also been shown to be beneficial in the prevention of [[heart]] disease.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/125136/Broccoli-beats-heart-disease|title=Broccoli beats heart disease|last=Clout|first=Laura|date=5 September 2009|publisher=[[Daily Express]]|accessdate=5 September 2009}}</ref>
 
See also [[Broccoli sprouts]] for possible health/medical benefits.
 
==Varieties==
[[File:Broccoli plants growing in New Jersey in April.jpg|thumb|right|Broccoli plants in a nursery.]]
There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is '''Calabrese broccoli''', often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after [[Calabria]] in Italy. It has large (10 to 20&nbsp;cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. '''Sprouting broccoli''' has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. '''Purple cauliflower''' is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds.
 
Other cultivar groups of ''Brassica oleracea'' include [[cabbage]] (Capitata Group), [[cauliflower]] and [[Romanesco broccoli]] (Botrytis Group), [[kale]] and [[collard greens]] (Acephala Group), [[kohlrabi]] (Gongylodes Group), and [[Brussels sprout]]s (Gemmifera Group). [[Chinese broccoli]] (Alboglabra Group) is also a cultivar group of ''Brassica oleracea''.<ref name=Dixon2007>{{cite book|last1 = Dixon|first1 = G.R.|year = 2007|title = Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers|isbn = 978-0-85199-395-9|publisher = CABI|location = Wallingford}}</ref> [[Rapini]], sometimes called "broccoli rabe" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (''[[Brassica rapa]]''). [[Broccolini]] or "Tender Stem Broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and [[kai-lan |Chinese broccoli]].
 
==Production==
[[File:2005cauliflower and broccoli.PNG|thumb|[[Cauliflower]] and broccoli output in 2005]]
In North America, production is primarily in [[California]]. The seasonal average [[Free On Board|f.o.b.]] shipping-point price for cauliflower in 2004 was $33.00 per 100&nbsp;pounds ($0.73/kg) according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}<!--as fresh produce prices are notorious for their volatility, a 6-year-old price has little relevance-->
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! colspan=3|Top ten cauliflowers and broccoli producers—11 June 2008
|-
! Country
! Production ([[tonne]]s)
! Footnote
|-
| {{PRC}} || 8,585,000 ||F
|-
| {{IND}} || 5,014,500 ||
|-
| {{USA}} || 1,240,710 ||
|-
| {{ESP}} || 450,100 ||
|-
| {{ITA}} || 433,252 ||
|-
| {{FRA}} || 370,000 ||F
|-
| {{MEX}} || 305,000 ||F
|-
| {{POL}} || 277,200 ||
|-
| {{PAK}} || 209,000 ||F
|-
| {{UK}} || 186,400 ||
|-
!World
!19,107,751
!
|-
|colspan=3 style="font-size:.9em"|No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate<br />
Source: [http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division]
|}
{{-}}
 
===Cultivation===
Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between {{convert|18|and|23|°C|°F}}.<ref>{{cite web|title = HGIC 1301 Broccoli|last = Smith|first = Powell|date = June 1999|publisher = [[Clemson University]]|url = http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/plants/vegetables/crops/hgic1301.html|accessdate = 25 August 2009}}</ref>
When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners or shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|title = Broccoli|last = Liptay|first = Albert|year = 1988|publisher = [[World Book Encyclopedia|World Book, Inc.]]}}</ref>
 
==Gallery==
{|wikitable
|-
|colspan=2|[[File:sa broccoli florets.jpg|center|470px]]
|[[File:Cavolfiore Violetto di Sicilia.jpg|center|150px]]
|[[File:Broccoli-leaf-big.jpg|center|190px]]
|-
|colspan=2|Close-ups of broccoli florets
|Sicilian Purple Broccoli
|A leaf of a Broccoli plant
|-
|[[File:Broccoli bloem.jpg|center|200px]]
|[[File:Fractal Broccoli.jpg|center|260px]]
|[[File:Broccoli flowers 2525385935 e13d4de4c4 b.jpg|150px|center]]
|[[File:Broccoli in a dish 2.jpg|center|190px]]
|-
|Broccoli flowers
|[[Romanesco broccoli]] (actually a cauliflower<br />cultivar), showing [[fractal]] forms
|Broccoli in flower
|Steamed broccoli
|}
 
==References==
{{Reflist|2}}
 
==External links==
{{Commons category|Broccoli}}
{{Portal|Food|Agriculture}}
*[http://database.prota.org/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=QBE_QUERY&BU=http%3A%2F%2Fdatabase.prota.org%2Fsearch.htm&TN=PROTAB~1&QB0=AND&QF0=Species+Code&QI0=Brassica+oleracea+cauliflower+and+broccoli&RF=Webdisplay PROTAbase on ''Brassica oleracea (cauliflower and broccoli)'']
*[http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wehner/vegcult/broccoli.html List of North American broccoli cultivars], USDA/ARS Vegetable Laboratory
{{Brassica oleraca}}
 
[[Category:Inflorescence vegetables]]
[[Category:Brassica oleracea]]
[[Category:Edible plants]]
[[Category:Cultivars]]
 
[[ar:قرنبيط أخضر]]
[[zh-min-nan:Chheⁿ-hoe-chhài]]
[[bo:མེ་ཚལ་ལྗང་ཁུ།]]
[[bs:Brokula]]
[[ca:Bròcoli]]
[[cs:Brokolice]]
[[da:Broccoli]]
[[de:Broccoli]]
[[dv:ބުރޮކޯޅި]]
[[nv:Chʼilzooł]]
[[el:Μπρόκολο]]
[[es:Brassica oleracea italica]]
[[eo:Brokolo]]
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[[fa:کلم بروکلی]]
[[fr:Brocoli]]
[[gl:Brócoli]]
[[ko:브로콜리]]
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[[hr:Brokula]]
[[ilo:Broccoli]]
[[id:Brokoli]]
[[is:Spergilkál]]
[[it:Brassica oleracea italica]]
[[he:ברוקולי]]
[[jv:Brokoli]]
[[kk:Брокколи]]
[[ht:Bwokoli]]
[[lv:Brokoļi]]
[[lt:Brokolis]]
[[lij:Bròccolo]]
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[[mr:ब्रोकली]]
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[[ja:ブロッコリー]]
[[no:Brokkoli]]
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[[pnb:بروکلی]]
[[pl:Brokuł]]
[[pt:Brócolis]]
[[ro:Broccoli]]
[[ru:Брокколи]]
[[scn:Brassica oleracea italica]]
[[simple:Broccoli]]
[[sk:Brokolica]]
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[[ckb:برۆکڵی]]
[[sr:Броколи]]
[[su:Brokoli]]
[[fi:Parsakaali]]
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[[tl:Brokoli]]
[[ta:புரோக்கோலி]]
[[te:బ్రొక్కొలి]]
[[th:บรอกโคลี]]
[[vi:Bông cải xanh]]
[[tr:Brokoli]]
[[uk:Броколі]]
[[ur:شاخ گوبھی]]
[[zh:西蘭花]]
Анонимен потребител