Разлика между версии на „Шариат“

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'''Шариатът''' ({{lang-ar|شريعة}} — ''пряк, правилен''; на [[български език|български]] изписвано и като '''шериат''') е [[ислям]]ския закон, който урежда всички аспекти на живота и обществото. Това е съвкупност от [[право]]ви, [[морал]]ни и [[религия|религиозни]] норми на исляма, които обхващат всички страни на живота на ортодоксалните [[мюсюлмани]]. Те са заложени в [[Коран]]а и [[Суна]]та.
 
Шариатът възниква в [[Арабски халифат|Арабския халифат]] през [[7 век]] и се доразвива до [[12 век]]. Като основен закон днес той действа в [[ИранСаудитска Арабия]], [[Судан]], [[ПакистанИрак]], [[СаудитскаОбединените Арабияарабски емирства]], и[[Катар]], други[[Йемен]], страни[[Иран]], [[Афганистан]], [[Пакистан]], [[Мавритания]]. През май 2014 година,г. законите на Шариаташариата са въведени и в [[Бруней]]. В тези страни наказания, оказани в шариата, като [[обезглавяване]], [[бичуване]] и [[убийство с камъни]] се практикуват по съдебен ред или извънсъдебно.<ref>{{cite book | last=Otto | first=Jan | title=Sharia incorporated a comparative overview of the legal systems of twelve Muslim countries in past and present | publisher=Leiden University Press | location=Leiden | year=2010 | isbn=978-90-8728-057-4}}</ref><ref name="nabiad"/> Налагането на шариата е от дълго време цел на [[ислямист]]ки движения по целия свят, включително в [[Западния свят]], но опитите за налагане на шариат са придружени с противоречия,<ref>Hamann, Katie (December 29, 2009). [http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/religion/Acehs-Sharia-Law-Still-Controversial-in-Indonesia-80257482.html "Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia"]. [[Voice of America]]. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
* Iijima, Masako (January 13, 2010). [http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60D07420100114 "Islamic Police Tighten Grip on Indonesia's Aceh"]. [[Reuters]]. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
* [http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/08/aceh-sharia-police-loved-and-hated.html "Aceh Sharia Police Loved and Hated"]. ''[[The Jakarta Post]].</ref> насилие<ref>Staff (January 3, 2003). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2632939.stm "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split"]. [[BBC News]]. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years".
* Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).<br />{{•}}p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."<br />{{•}} p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
* Mshelizza, Ibrahim (July 28, 2009). [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/fight-for-sharia-leaves-dozens-dead-in-nigeria-1763253.html "Fight for Sharia Leaves Dozens Dead in Nigeria&nbsp;– Islamic Militants Resisting Western Education Extend Their Campaign of Violence"]. ''[[The Independent]]''. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/religous_violence.html "Nigeria in Transition: Recent Religious Tensions and Violence"]. [[PBS]].
* Staff (December 28, 2010). [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/01/201012314018187505.html "Timeline: Tensions in Nigeria&nbsp;– A Look at the Country's Bouts of Inter-Religious and Ethnic Clashes and Terror Attacks"]. [[Al Jazeera English]]. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "Thousands of people are killed in northern Nigeria as non-Muslims opposed to the introduction of sharia, or Islamic law, fight Muslims who demand its implementation in the northern state of Kaduna.".
* Ibrahimova, Roza (July 27, 2009). [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2009/07/2009727182749635965.html "Dozens Killed in Violence in Northern Nigeria"] (video (requires [[Adobe Flash]]; 00:01:49)). [[Al Jazeera English]]. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "The group Boko Haram, which wants to impose sharia (Islamic law) across the country, has attacked police stations and churches."</ref> и дори войни.<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/sudan/63.htm]. ''[[Library of Congress Country Studies|Library of Congress Country Studies: Sudan:]]''. "The factors that provoked the military coup, primarily the closely intertwined issues of Islamic law and of the civil war in the south, remained unresolved in 1991. The September 1983 implementation of the sharia throughout the country had been controversial and provoked widespread resistance in the predominantly non-Muslim south ... Opposition to the sharia, especially to the application of hudud (sing., hadd), or Islamic penalties, such as the public amputation of hands for theft, was not confined to the south and had been a principal factor leading to the popular uprising of April 1985 that overthrew the government of Jaafar an Nimeiri".
* Marchal, R. (2013), Islamic political dynamics in the Somali civil war. Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: Essays in Gender Relations and Political Reform, pp 331-352
* {{cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/sudan/facts.html |title=PBS Frontline: "Civil war was sparked in 1983 when the military regime tried to impose sharia law as part of its overall policy to "Islamicize" all of Sudan." |publisher=Pbs.org |accessdate=2012-04-04}}
* [[Bassam Tibi|Tibi, Bassam]] (2008). ''Political Islam, World Politics and Europe''. [[Routledge]]. p. 33. "The shari'a was imposed on non-Muslim Sudanese peoples in September 1983, and since that time Muslims in the north have been fighting a jihad against the non-Muslims in the south."</ref> Във [[Великобритания]] Мюсюлманският арбитражен трибунал използва шариата за решаване на семейни диспути и това ограничено прилагане на шариата е противоречиво.<ref>Taher, Abul (September 14, 2008). Revealed: UK’s first official sharia courts. The Sunday Times
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/9975937/Inside-Britains-Sharia-courts.html Inside Britain's Sharia courts] Jane Corbin, The Telegraph (April 7, 2013)
* Bowen, J. R. (2009). How could English courts recognize Shariah?, U. St. Thomas Law Journal, 7, 411</ref>
 
Концепцията за престъпление, съдебен процес, правосъдие и наказание, въплътена в шариата е различна от концепцията в светското [[право]].<ref>Encyclopædia Britannica, see article on [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/538793/Shariah Shari'ah (Islamic law)], 2006
* Otto, J. M. (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries (Vol. 3), Amsterdam University Press</ref> Различията между шариата и светското право са довели до растящо противоречие за това дали шариатът е съвместим със светски форми на [[правителство]], [[човешки права]], [[свобода на мисълта]] и [[права на жените]].<ref name=naim96/><ref name=hajjar2004/><ref>Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399</ref>
 
== Източници на шариата ==
* [[халял]] — позволени;
* [[харам]] — забранени.
 
== Източници ==
<references/>
 
== Външни препратки ==
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