Разлика между версии на „Лампедуза“

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|Позиционна карта = Италия
|Субект на страната =
|Административна единица = провинция [[Агридженто (провинция) {{!}} Агридженто]], [[Административно деление на Италия|административен регион]] [[Сицилия]]
|UTC = UTC+1:00
|Акватория = Средиземно море
|lat_dir = N|lat_deg = 35|lat_min = 30|lat_sec = 00
|region =
|CoordScale =
|Площ = 25.48
|Най-висока точка = 16
|Население = 5800
|Година = 2001
|Снимка = Lampedusa island.jpg
|Размер на картината =
|Коментар към снимката =
Лампедуза е най-голямата част от общината на [[Лампедуза и Линоза]], която включва също по-малките острови [[Линоза]] и [[Лампионе]].
== Източници ==
<!--==Geography & Climate==
[[File:Pelagie Islands map.png|thumb|200px|Lampedusa and nearby islands]]
Политически и административно Лампедуза е част от [[Италия]], но географски принадлежи на [[Африка]], дълбо1ината на морето между острова и африканския бряг на надвишава 120 м. Lampedusa is an arid island, dominated by a [[garigue]] landscape, with [[maquis shrubland]] in the west. It has no sources of water other than irregular rainfall. The fauna and flora of Lampedusa are similar to those of North Africa, with a few [[Pelagic zone|pelagic]] [[Endemism|endemic]] species. {{Citation needed|date=August 2010}} Overall the island has two slopes, from west to east, and from north to south of the island. The southern-western side is dominated by deep gorges, while the south-eastern part is dominated by shallows valleys and sandy beaches. The entire northern coast is dominated by cliffs, gently slope cliffs on the east coast, vertical sheer cliffs on the west coast.
[[File:Isola Dei Conigli.JPG|thumb| The island of Rabbits]]
[[File:Gregale cliffs lampedusa.JPG|thumb|North-Eastern Cliffs of Lampedusa]]
The ''Isola dei Conigli'' (literally ‘Island of Rabbits’), which is close to the south coast of Lampedusa, is one of the last remaining egg-laying sites in Italy for the [[Loggerhead Sea Turtle]], which is endangered throughout the [[Mediterranean]]. The beach and the neighbouring island are part of a [[nature reserve]]: here the singer-songwriter [[Domenico Modugno]] spent his vacations, and died here in 1994. Next to Parise Cape is a small beach accessible only by sea, through a low [[grotto]]. Other species living along the island's coast include mantas and [[dolphin]]s.
Lampedusa has semi-arid/Mediterranean climate, with very mild winters and warm, dry summers.
The sea surrounding Lampedusa is relatively shallow and sea temperatures stay warm most of the year, with the warmest being in August when the sea typically reaches 28°C to 30°C. The water stays warm until November, when temperatures range from 25°C to 21°C. The water is coolest in February and March when it averages between 18°C to 20°C.
{{Weather box
|location = Lampedusa
|metric first = yes
|single line = yes
|Jan record high C = 20
|Feb record high C = 22
|Mar record high C = 21
|Apr record high C = 23
|May record high C = 30
|Jun record high C = 32
|Jul record high C = 36
|Aug record high C = 36
|Sep record high C = 35
|Oct record high C = 31
|Nov record high C = 28
|Dec record high C = 25
|year record high C = 36
|Jan high C = 15
|Feb high C = 15
|Mar high C = 16
|Apr high C = 17
|May high C = 20
|Jun high C = 24
|Jul high C = 27
|Aug high C = 28
|Sep high C = 27
|Oct high C = 24
|Nov high C = 20
|Dec high C = 16
|year high C = 21
|Jan mean C = 12
|Feb mean C = 12
|Mar mean C = 13
|Apr mean C = 16
|May mean C = 18
|Jun mean C = 22
|Jul mean C = 25
|Aug mean C = 26
|Sep mean C = 25
|Oct mean C = 22
|Nov mean C = 18
|Dec mean C = 15
|year mean C = 19
|Jan low C = 12
|Feb low C = 12
|Mar low C = 13
|Apr low C = 14
|May low C = 17
|Jun low C = 21
|Jul low C = 23
|Aug low C = 25
|Sep low C = 23
|Oct low C = 21
|Nov low C = 17
|Dec low C = 13
|year low C = 17
|Jan record low C = 5
|Feb record low C = 7
|Mar record low C = 7
|Apr record low C = 10
|May record low C = 11
|Jun record low C = 15
|Jul record low C = 18
|Aug record low C = 18
|Sep record low C = 16
|Oct record low C = 11
|Nov record low C = 8
|Dec record low C = 5
|year record low C = 5
|Jan precipitation mm = 81
|Feb precipitation mm = 51
|Mar precipitation mm = 39
|Apr precipitation mm = 21
|May precipitation mm = 38
|Jun precipitation mm = 7
|Jul precipitation mm = 3
|Aug precipitation mm = 2
|Sep precipitation mm = 4
|Oct precipitation mm = 25
|Nov precipitation mm = 71
|Dec precipitation mm = 83
|year precipitation mm = 425
|Jan precipitation days = 11
|Feb precipitation days = 8
|Mar precipitation days = 7
|Apr precipitation days = 5
|May precipitation days = 3
|Jun precipitation days = 1
|Jul precipitation days = 1
|Aug precipitation days = 1
|Sep precipitation days = 4
|Oct precipitation days = 8
|Nov precipitation days = 11
|Dec precipitation days = 11
|year precipitation days = 71
|unit precipitation days = 1&nbsp;mm
|source 1 = Weatherbase<ref name="Weatherbase">{{cite web
|title=Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Lampedusa
|date=January 2011
{{climate chart
[[File:Lampedusa versante sud.jpg|thumb|200px|The south coast of Lampedusa]]
Historically, Lampedusa was a landing place and a maritime base for the ancient [[Phoenicia]]ns, [[Ancient Greece|Greek]]s, [[Ancient Roman|Roman]]s and [[Arab]]s. The Romans established a plant for the production of the prized fish sauce known as ''[[garum]]''. As a result of pirate attacks by the Arabs, the island became uninhabited.
The first prince of Lampedusa and Linosa was [[Giulio Tomasi]], ancestor of the famous writer [[Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa]], who received the title from [[Charles II of Spain]] in [[1630]].{{Citation needed|date=June 2009}} A century later the Tomasi family began a program of resettlement. In the [[1840s]] the Tomasi family sold the island to the Kingdom of Naples.
In 1860 the island became part of the new [[unification of Italy|Kingdom of Italy]], but the new government limited its activities there to building a [[penal colony]].
During [[World War II]], the island was captured by British forces in [[Operation Corkscrew]], as an immediate precursor to the [[Allied invasion of Sicily]].
The first [[telephone]] connection with Sicily was installed only in the 1960s. In the same decade an electric power station was built. The western part of the island became a U.S. Coast Guard [[LORAN-C transmitter Lampedusa|LORAN-C transmitter]] in 1972.
In 1979, [[Kay Hartzell|Lt. Kay Hartzell, United States Coast Guard]] [http://www.uscg.mil/history/uscghist/WomenChronology.asp took command] of the Coast Guard base, becoming the first female commanding officer of an isolated [http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode14/usc_sec_14_00000001----000-.html U.S. military base].<ref>[http://www.uscg.mil/History/Women%20Chronology.html Women in the Coast Guard: Moments in History
The Mediterranean during the 1980s was the scene of numerous terrorist attacks. 1985-1986 saw an increase in tensions. On April 15, 1986, [[Libya]] fired two [[Scud]]s at the [[LORAN-C transmitter Lampedusa|U.S. Coast Guard]] navigation station on the Italian island, in retaliation for the [[Operation El Dorado Canyon|American bombing]] of [[Tripoli]] and [[Benghazi]], and the death of [[Colonel Gaddafi]]'s daughter. However, the missiles passed over the island, landing in the sea, and caused no damage.
On [[Gulf of Sidra incident (1989)|January 4, 1989]], U.S. Navy aircraft from the carrier [[USS John F. Kennedy|USS ''John F. Kennedy'']] shot down two [[Libya]]n fighters approximately 200 kilometers from the island.<ref>[[Gulf of Sidra incident (1989)]]</ref> At the time, a U.S. Navy logistics aircraft from HC-4 was on the ground at the NATO base, preparing for takeoff. The base commander, [[Lt. Kenneth Armstrong]], received notice from [[U.S. Sixth Fleet]] Intelligence at [[La Maddalena]] that the Libyan fighters had been shot down, and immediately grounded the unarmed logistics flight, which was scheduled to move on to [[Tel Aviv]]. Sixth Fleet Intel also informed Armstrong that Libyan president [[Muammar al-Gaddafi]] had made direct reprisal threats against the American commanders at [[NAS Sigonella|Sigonella]], Sicily, and at Lampedusa.<ref>Commanding Officer's Log, USCG Loran Station Lampedusa, January 4, 1989</ref>
The aircraft remained on the ground overnight, and an Italian media frenzy followed, putting Lampedusa and Armstrong in the spotlight. Armstrong responded by hosting a media tour of the base, conspicuously wearing his body armor and pointing out defensive forces on the base. The move quieted speculation that the Americans were once again preparing to leave.<ref>Commanding Officer's Log, USCG Loran Station Lampedusa, January 5–9, 1989</ref>
The NATO base was decommissioned in 1994 and transferred to Italian military control. It can still be seen clearly on [[Google Earth]] (keyword: Lampedusa), at the west end of the island, with swimming pool and outbuildings visible.
[[File:lampedusa coast line.jpg|thumb|Coastline of Lampedusa.]]
==Illegal immigration issue==
Lampedusa has made international news as a prime transit site for illegal immigrants hoping to enter [[Europe]] from Africa, the [[Middle East]] and [[Asia]]. A secret agreement between the [[Libya]]n and Italian governments in 2004 obliged Libya to take in returned refugees and resulted in the [[deportation]] of many people from Lampedusa to Libya in 2004 and 2005{{Citation needed|date=July 2009}}. The [[European Parliament]] did not endorse this.<ref>[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2005-0138+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN European Parliament resolution on Lampedusa], 14 April 2005</ref>
In 2006 it was reported that illegal immigrants from Africa still commonly [[human trafficking|pay smugglers]] in [[Libya]] for a transit to Lampedusa.<ref>[http://www.springerlink.com/content/v774j854r6n18438/ Out of Africa: The human trade between Libya and Lampedusa]</ref> From there they are transferred by the Italian government to reception centers in mainland Italy and eventually released; their deportation orders are not enforced.<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1974925,00.html Bitter harvest], ''[[The Guardian]]'', 19 December 2006</ref> The illegal immigration into Italy's territory is a major issue in recent times, with parties who campaign with the issue as part of their promises.
The conditions at a temporary reception center for immigrants on the island came under criticism by the [[UNHCR]] for overcrowding in early 2009. The center, originally built with a maximum capacity of 850 people, was reported to be housing nearly 2,000 '[[boat people]]' with significant numbers of them sleeping outdoors under plastic sheeting.<ref>[http://www.unhcr.org/news/NEWS/497991064.html UNHCR Concerned over Humanitarian Situation in Lampedusa, Italy]</ref> On 19 February 2009, a number of Tunisian men broke a hunger strike that sparked a riot in which a large portion of the holding facility was destroyed by fire.{{Citation needed|date=July 2009}} Periodic overcrowding in these camps is the result of a precise strategy: human traffickers concentrate their activity in very small intervals of time in order to reduce the risk, hinder immigrants identification and promote riots.
The island of Lampedusa is connected to Sicily by a ferry service with the seaport of [[Porto Empedocle]], near [[Agrigento]]. [[Lampedusa Airport]] has flights to [[Palermo Airport]] and [[Trapani-Birgi Airport]] all year round and to [[Catania-Fontanarossa Airport]] and [[Malpensa Airport|Milan Airport]] during the summer.
==Popular entertainment==
The [[Film|movie]] ''[[Respiro]]'' (2002), written and directed by [[Emanuele Crialese]] and starring [[Valeria Golino]], was filmed entirely on Lampedusa -->
== Външни препратки ==
* {{икона|it}} [http://www.isoladilampedusa.it/ Официална уеб страница на острова]
* {{икона|de}} [http://www.lampedusa.ch/ Сайт за Лампедуза на немски език]
[[Категория:Острови на Италия]]