Разлика между версии на „Шариат“

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'''Шариатът''' ({{lang-ar|شريعة}} – ''пряк, правилен''; на [[български език|български]] изписвано и като '''шериат''') е [[ислям]]ския закон, който урежда всички аспекти на живота и обществото. Това е съвкупност от [[право]]ви, [[морал]]ни и [[религия|религиозни]] норми на исляма, които обхващат всички страни на живота на ортодоксалните [[мюсюлмани]]. Те са заложени в [[Коран]]а и [[Суна]]та.
 
Шариатът възниква в [[Арабски халифат|Арабския халифат]] през [[7 век]] и се доразвива до [[12 век]]. Като основен закон днес той действа в [[Саудитска Арабия]], [[Судан]], [[Ирак]], [[Обединените арабски емирства]], [[Катар]], [[Йемен]], [[Иран]], [[Афганистан]], [[Пакистан]], [[Мавритания]]. През май 2014 г. законите на шариата са въведени и в [[Бруней]]. В тези страни наказания, указани в шариата, като [[обезглавяване]], [[бичуване]] и [[убийство с камъни]] се практикуват по съдебен ред или извънсъдебно.<ref>{{cite book | last=Otto | first=Jan | title=Sharia incorporated a comparative overview of the legal systems of twelve Muslim countries in past and present | publisher=Leiden University Press | location=Leiden | year=2010 | isbn=978-90-8728-057-4}}</ref> Налагането на шариата е от дълго време цел на [[ислямист]]ки движения по целия свят, включително в [[Западния свят]], но опитите за налагане на шариат са придружени с противоречия,<ref>Hamann, Katie (December 29, 2009). [http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/religion/Acehs-Sharia-Law-Still-Controversial-in-Indonesia-80257482.html „Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia“]. [[Voice of America]]. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 19, септември 2011.
* Iijima, Masako (January 13, 2010). [http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60D07420100114 „Islamic Police Tighten Grip on Indonesia's Aceh“]. [[Reuters]]. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 18, септември 2011.
* [http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/08/aceh-sharia-police-loved-and-hated.html „Aceh Sharia Police Loved and Hated“]. [[The Jakarta Post]].</ref> насилие<ref>Staff (January 3, 2003). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2632939.stm „Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split“]. [[BBC News]]. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 19, септември 2011. „Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years“.
* Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).<br />{{•}}p. 16. „When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead.“<br />{{•}} p. 189. „When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill.“
* Mshelizza, Ibrahim (July 28, 2009). [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/fight-for-sharia-leaves-dozens-dead-in-nigeria-1763253.html „Fight for Sharia Leaves Dozens Dead in Nigeria&nbsp;– Islamic Militants Resisting Western Education Extend Their Campaign of Violence“]. ''[[The Independent]]''. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 19, септември 2011.
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/religous_violence.html „Nigeria in Transition: Recent Religious Tensions and Violence“]. [[PBS]].
* Staff (December 28, 2010). [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/01/201012314018187505.html „Timeline: Tensions in Nigeria&nbsp;– A Look at the Country's Bouts of Inter-Religious and Ethnic Clashes and Terror Attacks“]. [[Al Jazeera English]]. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 19, септември 2011. „Thousands of people are killed in northern Nigeria as non-Muslims opposed to the introduction of sharia, or Islamic law, fight Muslims who demand its implementation in the northern state of Kaduna.“.
* Ibrahimova, Roza (July 27, 2009). [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2009/07/2009727182749635965.html „Dozens Killed in Violence in Northern Nigeria“] (video (requires [[Adobe Flash]]; 00:01:49)). [[Al Jazeera English]]. RetrievedПосетен Septemberна 19, септември 2011. „The group Boko Haram, which wants to impose sharia (Islamic law) across the country, has attacked police stations and churches.“</ref> и дори войни.<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/sudan/63.htm]. ''[[Library of Congress Country Studies|Library of Congress Country Studies: Sudan:]]''. „The factors that provoked the military coup, primarily the closely intertwined issues of Islamic law and of the civil war in the south, remained unresolved in 1991. The September 1983 implementation of the sharia throughout the country had been controversial and provoked widespread resistance in the predominantly non-Muslim south... Opposition to the sharia, especially to the application of hudud (sing., hadd), or Islamic penalties, such as the public amputation of hands for theft, was not confined to the south and had been a principal factor leading to the popular uprising of April 1985 that overthrew the government of Jaafar an Nimeiri“.
* Marchal, R. (2013), Islamic political dynamics in the Somali civil war. Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: Essays in Gender Relations and Political Reform, pp 331-352
* {{cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/sudan/facts.html |title=PBS Frontline: "Civil war was sparked in 1983 when the military regime tried to impose sharia law as part of its overall policy to „Islamicize“ all of Sudan." |publisher=Pbs.org |accessdate=4 април 2012}}